Business battle fiercely, making an enormous variety of products to

meet different customers needs. In many businesses, promotion is the key

to a new product success. Promotion is any technique designed to sell a

product to a customer. To sell a product, promotional techniques must

communicate the uses, features, & benefits of the product. Here we will

look at different reasons for & approaches to promotion, When & why

companies use particular tools & strategies, & the special promotional

problems & solutions of small business.

Promotional Objectives, Strategies, & Tolls

In developing a promotional plan, marketers must consider the

companys basic promotional objectives. They must develop promotional

strategies to reach those objectives. Then, as a part of their strategies,

they must choose among various promotional tools that may be used alone or

in combination

Promotional Objectives

You may think that the ultimate objective of any type of promotion is

to increase sales. Youre right. After all, the goal of any business is to

make money, & companies make money by making sales. However, marketers also

use promotion to communicate information, position products, & control

sales volume.

Communication of Information.

A very basic objective of promotion is to communicate information

from one person or organization to another. Consumers cannot buy a product

unless they have been informed about it.

Information may advise customers about the availability of a product.

It may educate them on the latest technological advances. Or it may

announce the candidacy of someone running for a government office.

Information may be communicated in writing (newspapers & magazines)

It may be communicated verbally (in person or over the telephone) Or it may

be communicated visually (television, a match book cover, or a billboard).

Today, the communication of information regarding a companys products or

services is so important that markets try to place it wherever consumers

may be.

Product Positioning.

Another objective of promotion, Product Positioning, is to establish

an easily

identifiable image of a product in the minds of consumers. For example, by

selling only in

department stores, Lauder products have positioned themselves as more

upscale than cosmetics sold in drugstores. Given all the brands &

trademarks in the marketplace, it is impossible for an individual to

remember each one. Therefore, marketers seek a unique position in buyers


Positioning a product is difficult because the company is trying to

appeal to a specific segment of the market rather than to the market as a

whole. First, the company must identify which segments of a market could

would be likely purchasers of its product & who is competitors are. Only

then can it focus its promotional strategy on differentiating its product

from the competitions, while appealing to its target audience.

Controlling Sales Volume.

Another objective of promotions is sales volume control. Many

companies such as Hallmark Cards, experience seasonal sales patterns. By

increasing its promotional activities in slow periods, the firm can achieve

a more stable sales volume throughout the year. As a result, it can keep

its production & distribution systems running evenly. Promotions can even

turn slow seasons into peak sales periods. For example, greeting card

companies & florists together have done much to create Grandparents

day.The result has been increased consumer desire to send cards & flowers

to older relatives in the middle of what was a dry for these industries.

Promotional Strategies

Once a firms promotional objectives are clear, it must develop a

promotional strategy to achieve these objectives. Promotional strategies

may be of the push or pull variety. A company with a Push strategy will

aggressively push its product through wholesalers & retailers, who persuade

customers to buy it. In contrast, a company with Pull strategy appeals

directly to customers who demand the product from retailers, who in turn

demand the product from wholesalers.

Makers from industrial products most often use a Push strategy And

makers of consumer products most often use a Pull strategy. Many large

firms use a combination of the two strategies. For example, General Foods

uses advertising to create consumer demand(pull) for its cereals. It also

pushes wholesalers & retailers to stoke these products. Once the

promotional strategy has been determined, it guides the companys choice of

promotional objectives & the types of promotional communicational tools

that will be used.

Picking the Right Tools for the Promotional Mix

Based on these strategies, the firm must select the right promotional

tools. There are four basis types of promotional tools: Advertising,

Personal selling, Sales promotions, & Publicity & Public relations.

The best combination of these tools-the best promotional mix -

depends on many

factors. The companys product, the costs of different tools versus the

promotional budget, & characteristics in the target audience all play a


The product. The nature of the product being promoted affect the mix

greatly. For example, advertising can reach a large number of widely

dispersed consumers. Thus it is used by makers of products that might be

purchased by anyone, like sunglasses, radios & snack foods. Companies

introducing new products also favor advertising because it reaches a large

number of people very quickly & can repeat a message many times. Personal

selling, on the other hand, is important when the product appeals to a very

specific audience, such as piping or pressure gauges for industrial


Cost of the Tolls. The cost of communication tools is also important.

Because personal selling is an expensive communicational tool, it is most

appropriate in marketing high-priced goods like computers for industrial

customers & homes for consumers. In contrast, advertising reaches more

customers per dollar spent.

A promotional mix that is good for one company is not really good for

another. For example, Frito -Lay can afford to spend millions of dollars on

advertising & consumer promotions to promote Ruffles Cajun Spice potato

chips nationally. But Zapps Potato Chips of Gramercy, Louisiana, the

innovator in Cajun flavor potato chips, must rely on personal selling &

publicity to promote its Cajun Craw-taters locally.

Promotion & the Buyer Decision Process. Another consideration in

establishing the promotional mix is the stage of the buyer decision process

that customers are in. Customers must first recognize the need to make a

purchase. At these stage marketers need to make sure the buyer is aware

that their products exist. Thus, advertising & publicity, which can reach a

large number of people very quickly, are very important.

At the next stage, customers want to learn more about possible

products. Advertising & personal selling are important because they both

can be used to educate the customer about the product.

During the third stage, customers will evaluate & compare competing

products. Personal selling is vital at this point because sales

representatives can demonstrate their products quality & performance in

direct relation to the competitions product.

Next, customers decide ton a specific product & purchase it. Sales

promotion is effective at these stage because it can give consumers an

incentive to buy. Personal selling can also help by bringing the product to

convenient location for the consumer.

Finally, consumers evaluate the product after buying it. Advertising,

or even personal selling, is sometimes used after the sale to remind

consumers that they made wise & prudent purchases.

Advertising Promotions

Advertising Strategies

Advertising strategies most often depend on which stage of the

product life cycle their product is in. During the introduction stage,

Informative Advertising can help develop an awareness of the company & its

product among buyers & can establish a primary demand for the product. For

example, when a new textbook is being published, instructors receive direct-

mail advertisements notifying them of the books contents & availability.

As products become established, advertising stages must change.

During the growth stage, Persuasive Advertising can influence customers to

buy the companys products, not those of its rivals. For example, during

its growth stage, Advil used this approach to attract buyers of Tylenol &

other pain relievers. Persuasive advertising is also important during the

maturity stage to maintain the products level of sales. In addition,

Comparative Advertising may help to steal sales away from the competition.

After proclaiming that most people in Ford country drive Chevy pickups,

the ad then discusses specific features of the two brands, in a classic

example of the comparison approach.

Finally, during the latter part of the maturity stage and all of the

decline stage, Reminder Advertising keeps the products name on the tip of

the consumers lips. And so Atari continues to advertise its home video

games, even though attention has shifted over to a newer competitor,


Whatever the products life cycle stage, advertising strategies must

consider timing. Should the organization advertise throughout the year on a

continual basis, or seasonally? Companies such as commercial banks space

ads evenly throughout a year.

Advertising Media

In developing advertising strategies, marketers must also consider

the best

Advertising Medium for their message. IBM, for example, uses

television ads to keep its name fresh in consumers minds. But it uses

newspaper & magazine ads to educate consumers on the products abilities &

trade publication to introduce new software. Each advertising medium has

its own advantages & disadvantages.

Newspapers. Newspapers are the most widely used advertising medium,

accounting for about 27 % of all advertising expenditures. Newspapers offer

excellent coverage, since each local market has at least the daily

newspaper & many people read the paper ever day(Like you are).This medium

offers flexible, rapid coverage, since ads can change from day to day. It

also offers believable coverage, since ads are presented side-by-side with

news. However, newspapers are generally thrown out after one day, often

cannot print in color, & have poor reproduction quality. Moreover

newspapers dont usually allow advertisers to target their audience very


Television. Television accounts for about 22% of all advertising

expenditures. In addition to the major networks, cable television is

becoming a major advertising medium. Cable ad revenues have increased from

$58million in1980 to $1.4billion in1988, & are projected to be over

$2billion by1990.

Television allows advertisers to combine sight, sound, & motion, thus

appealing to almost all the viewers senses. National advertising is done

on television because it reaches more people than any other medium.

One disadvantage of television is that there are too many

commercials, causing viewers to confuse products. Most people for example,

cant recall whether a tire commercial was for Firestone, or Goodrich.

Viewers of VCR tapes of shows often fast-forward past the ads. Another

disadvantage, is that the normal Commercial spot lasts only a short

time(usually 30sec), & then its gone. If the viewer is not paying

attention, the impact of the commercial is lost. Brevity also makes

television a poor medium in which to educate viewers about complex

products. Finally television is the most expensive medium. A 30sec

commercial during the Super Bowl costs about $750.000!

Direct Mail. Direct Mail advertisements account for 17% of all

advertising expenditures. As the name implies, direct mail often involves

fliers mailed directly to consumers homes or places of business. Direct

Mail allows the company to select its audience & personalize the message.

Consumers are also exposed to far less direct mail than to other

advertising media. Moreover, although direct mail incurs the largest

advance costs of any advertising technique, it also appears to have the

highest cost effectiveness. These features have helped to make direct mail

a fast-growing advertising medium.

Radio. About 7% of all advertising expenditures are for radio time. A

tremendous number of people listen to the radio each day, and radio ads are

very inexpensive. In addition, since most radio is programmed locally, this

medium gives advertisers a high degree of customer selectivity. For

example, radio stations are already segmented into listening categories

such as rock & roll, country & western, jazz, talk shows, news & religious


Like television however, radio ads are over quickly. And radio

permits only an audio presentation. Also people tend to use the radio as a

background while theyre

doing their things, paying little attention to the advertisements.

Magazines. Magazine advertising accounts for roughly 5% of all

advertising. The many different magazines on the market provide a high

level on consumer selectivity. Magazine advertising also allows for

excellent reproduction of photographs & artwork that not only grabs buyers

attention, but may also convince them on the products value. And magazines

allow advertisers plenty of space for detailed product information Another

advantage of magazines is that they have a long life & tend to be passed

from person to person, thus doubling & tripling the number of exposures.

The problem with magazine advertising is that ads must be submitted

well in advance to be included in a certain issue. Often there is no

guarantee of where within a magazine in ad will appear. Naturally, a

company would prefer to have its advertisement appear near the front of the

magazine or within a feature article.

Outdoor. Outdoor advertising - billboards, signs, & advertising

buses, taxis, & subways - makes up a little more than 1 % of all

advertising. These advertisements are relatively inexpensive, they face

little competition for customers attention, & they are subject to high

repeat exposure. Unfortunately, companies have little control over who will

see their advertisement.

Types of Advertising

Regardless of the media used, advertisements fall into one of several

categories. Brand Advertising promotes a specific brand, such as Kodak126

film, Head & shoulders shampoo, & Nike Air Jordan basketball shoes.

Advocacy Advertising promotes a particular candidate or viewpoint, as in

ads for political candidates at electon time and antidrug commercials.

Institutional Advertising promotes a firs long-term image, as when AT&T

assures customers that it is ``the right choice.

Advertising to Specific Markets

Advertisements also differ in to whom they are directed. That is,

advertisement depend on the companys target market. In consumer markets,

local stores usually sponsor retail advertising to encourage consumers to

visit the store & buy its products & services. Larger retailers use retail

advertising on both a local & national level. Often retail advertising is

actually cooperative advertising, with the cost of the advertising shared

by the retailer & the manufacturer.

In industrial markets, to communicate with companies that distribute

its products, some firms use trade advertising publications. And to reach

the professional purchasing agent & managers at firm buying raw material or

components, companies use industrial advertising.

Regulation of Advertising

Advertising affects nearly every American. Because it can be used to

deceive as well as inform buyers, advertising has increasingly come under

regulation. The first regulation of advertising activities came in1914.

This act created the Federal Trade Commission to protect competition from

unfair trade practices.

Members of the advertising industry also regulate themselves to some

degree. Advertising media, including television networks & local stations

magazines, & newspapers, decline ads they believe to be false or in poor

test. And the National Advertising Review Board investigates complaints

against national advertisers. If it finds in favor of the advertiser,

chargers are dropped. If it finds in favor of the complaining party, then

the advertiser must modify or withdraw its claim.

Personal Selling Promotions

Virtually everyone has engaged in some sort of sales activity.

Perhaps you had a lemonade stand or sold candy for the drama club. Or you

may have gone on a job interview - selling your abilities & service as an

employee to the interviewers company.

Personal selling - the oldest form of selling - is a vital cog in

many companies promotional efforts. It provides the personal link between

seller & buyer. It adds to a firms creditability because it provides

buyers with someone to interact with & to answer their questions.

Because it involves personal interaction, however, personal selling

requires a level of trust between the buyer & the seller. When a buyer

fells cheated by the seller, that

trust has been broken & negative attitude towards salespeople in

general develops. To counteract this reputation, many companies are

emphasizing customer satisfaction & generally striving to improve the

effectiveness of whatever personal selling they undertake.

Personal selling is also most expensive form of promotion per contact

because presentations are generally made to one or two individuals at time.

Personal selling expenses include salespeoples compensation & their

overhead, usually travel, food & lodging. The average cost of sales call

has been estimated an approximately $240 & has been increasing rapidly in

recent years.

The high cost of personal sales have prompted many companies to set up

Telemarketing departments. Telemarketing is the use of the telephone to

carry out many of the activities involved in marketing a companys

products. Telemarketing can be used to handle any stage of the personal

selling process or to set up appointments for outside sales people.

Types of Personal Selling Situations

Managers of both telemarketing & traditional personal sales people

must always consider how personal service are affected by the difference

between consumer products & industrial products. Retail selling involves

selling a consumer product for the buyers own personal or household use.

Industrial selling deals with selling products to other businesses, either

for manufacturing other products or for resale.

Each of this selling groups situations has its own distinct

characteristics. In retail selling the buyer usually comes to the seller.

The industrial salesperson almost always goes to the prospects place of

business. The industrial decision process also may take longer than a

retail decision because more money, decision makers, & weighting of

alternatives are involved. And industrial buyers are professional

purchasing agents who are accustomed to dealing with salespeople. Consumers

in retail stores, on the other hand, may be intimidated by salespeople.

Personal Selling Tasks

Improving sales efficiency also requires marketers to consider

salespeoples tasks. Three basic tasks are generally associated with

selling: Order processing, creative selling, & missionary selling. Sales

jobs usually require salespeople to perform all three tasks to some degree,

depending on the product & the company. As you will see, this tasks differ

in the skills required, the methods used, & the reasons for using them.

Order Processing. At the most basic level, Order Processing, a

salesperson receives an order & sees to the handling & delivery of that

order. Route salespeople are often order processors. They call on regular

customers to check the customers supply of bread, milk, snack foods, or

soft drinks. Then, with a customers consent, they determine the size of

the reorder, fill the order form their trucks, & stack the customers


Creative Selling. When the benefits of the product are not clear,

creative selling may persuade buyers. Most industrial products involves

creative selling because the buyer has not used the product before or may

not be familiar with the features & uses of

a specific brand. Personal selling is also crucial for high priced consumer

products, such as homes, where buyers comparison shop. Any new product can

benefit from creative selling that differentiates it from other products.

Finally, creative selling can help to create a need.

Missionary Selling. A company may also use missionary selling to

promote itself & its products. The goal of missionary selling is to promote

the companys long-term image than to make a quick sale.

The Personal Selling Process

Although all three sales tasks are important to an organization using

personal selling, perhaps the most complicated is creative selling. It is

the creative salesperson who is responsible for most of the steps in the

personal selling process described here.

Prospecting & Qualifying. In order to sell, a sales person must first

have a potential customer, or prospect. Prospecting is the process of

identifying this potential customers. Salespeople find prospects through

past company records, customers , friends, relatives, company personnel, &

business associates. Prospects must then be qualified to determine whether

or not they have the authority to buy & the ability to pay.

Approaching. The first few minutes that a salesperson has contact

with a qualified prospect are called the approach. The success of later

stages depends on the prospects first impression of the salesperson, since

this impression affects the salespersons creditability. Thus, salespeople

need to present a neat, professional appearance & to greet prospects in a

strong, confident manner.

Presenting & Demonstrating. Next, the salesperson must present the

promotional message to the prospect. A presentation is the full explanation

of the

product, its features, & its uses. It links the products benefits to

the prospects needs. A presentation may or may not include a demonstration

of the product.

Handling Objections. No matter what the products, prospects will have

some objections. At the very least, prospects will object to a products

price, hoping to get a discount. Objections show the salesperson that the

buyer is interested in the presentation & which parts of the presentation

the buyer is insure of or has a problem with. They tell the salesperson

what customers feel is important &, essentially, how to sell them.

Closing. The most critical part of the selling process is the close,

in which the

sales person asks the prospective customer to buy the product. Successful

salespeople, recognize the signs that a customer is ready to buy.

Salespeople can ask directly for the sale or they can indirectly imply a

close. Questions such as Could you take delivery Tuesday? & Why dont

we start you off with an initial order of ten cases? are implied closes.

Such indirect closes place the burden of rejecting the sale on the

prospect, who often will find it hard to say no.

Following Up. The sales process doesnt end with the close of the

sale. Most companies wants customers to come back again. Sales follow-up

activities include fast processing of the customers orders & on-time

delivery. Training in the proper care & usage of the product & speedy

service if repairs are needed may also be part of the fallow-up.

Sales Promotions

Sales promotions ( motivators) are a very important factor in the

promotional mix because they increase the chances that consumers will try a

product. They also enhance recognition for the products. And they can

increase the purchase size & amount.

Did you ever here a promotional slogan buy three & get one free.

To succeed, however, sales promotions must be convenient & accessible

when the decision to purchase occurs.

Types of Sales Promotions

Sales promotions can take a variety of forms. The best known are

coupons, point of purchase displays, free samples, trading stamps,

premiums, trade shows, trade promotions, & contests & sweepstakes.

Coupons. Any certificate that entitles the bearer to a stated savings

off a products regular price is a coupon. Coupons may be used to encourage

customers to try new products, to attract customers away from competitors

or to include current customers to buy more of a product. They appear in

newspapers & magazines & are often sent through direct mail.

Point-of-Purchase Displays. To grab customers attention as they walk

through the store, some companies use Point of Purchase Displays. Displays

located at the end of the aisles or near the checkout in supermarkets are

POP displays. POP displays are always coincide with a sale or the item

being displayed. They also make it easier for customers to find a product &

easier for manufacturers to eliminate competitors from

consideration. The cost of shelf & display space, however, is becoming more

& more expensive.

Free Samples, Trading Stamps, & Premiums. Purchasing incentives such

as free samples, trading stamps, & Premiums are used by many manufacturers

& retailers. Premiums are gifts, such as pens, pencils, calendars, & coffee

mugs, that are given away to consumers in return for buying a specified

product. Retailers & wholesalers also receive premiums for carrying some


Trade Shows. Periodically, industries sponsor Trade Shows for their

members & customers. Trade shows allow companies to rent booths to display

& demonstrate their products to customers who have a special interest in

the products or who are ready to buy. Trade shows are relatively

inexpensive & are very effective, since the buyer comes to the seller

already interested in a given type of product.

Contests & Sweepstakes. Customers, distributors, & sales

representatives may all be persuaded to increase sales of a product through

the use of contest. For example, distributors & sales agents may win a trip

to Hawaii for selling the most pillows in the month of March. Although

sweepstakes cant require consumers to buy a product to enter, they may

increase sales by stimulating buyers interest in a product.

Publicity & Public Relations Promotions

Much to the delight of marketing managers with tight budgets,

Publicity Is FREE. Moreover, consumers see publicity as objective & highly

believable. Thus, it is a very important part of the promotional mix.

However marketers often have a little control over publicity.

Public relations is company-influenced publicity. It attempts to

establish a sense of goodwill between the company & its customers through

public service announcements that enhance the companys image. From this

topic, so far, you may think that only large companies can afford to

seriously promote their goods & services. Although small businesses have

fewer resources, cost-effective promotions can improve sales & enable small

firms to complete with a much larger firms.

Small Business Advertising

The type of advertising chosen by a small business depends on the

market the

firm is trying to reach: Local, National, International.

Local Markets. Advertising is non prime-time slots on local

television offers great impact at a cost many small firms can afford. More

commonly though, small businesses with a local market use newspaper & radio

advertising &, increasingly, direct mail.

National Markets. Many businesses have grown from small to large

operations by using direct mail & particularly catalogues. By purchasing

mailing lists of other companies customers, a small firm can target its

mailing, reducing costs. The ability to target an audience also makes

specialized magazines attractive to small businesses.

International Markets. Television, radio, & newspapers are seldom

viable promotional options in reaching international markets because of

both their costs and their limited availability. Most small firms find

direct mail & magazine advertising the most effective promotional tools.

Small Business Personal Selling

Like advertising, personal selling strategies used by small

businesses depend on their intended market.

Local Markets. Some small firms maintain a sales force to promote &

sell their products locally. Other contract with a sales agency - a company

that handles the products of several companies - to act on their behalf.

Insurance agents who sell insurance for several different companies are

sales agencies.

National Markets. Because of a high costs of operating a national

sales force,

many companies have established telemarketing staffs. By combining

telemarketing with a catalog or other educational product literature, small

companies can sell their products nationally & compete against much larger


International Markets. Small companies cant afford to establish

international offices in order to conduct businesses. Even sending sales

representatives overseas is expensive. Thus, many small companies have

combined telemarketing with direct mail in order to expand internationally.

Small businesses often depend on an interesting or unusual sign to attract

new customers.

Small Business Sales Promotions

Small companies use the same sales promotion incentives that larger

companies use. The difference is that larger firms tend to use more

coupons, POP displays, & sales contests. Smaller firms rely on premiums &

special sales, since coupons & sales contests are more expensive &

difficult to manage.

Small Business Publicity

Publicity is very important to small businesses with local markets.

Small firms often have an easier time getting local publicity than do

national firms. Readers of local papers like to read about local companies,

so local papers like to write about such businesses. But fierce competition

for coverage in national & international publications limits the access

small businesses have to those markets.

Distributing Goods & Services

In selecting a distribution mix for getting its products to

customers, a firm may use any or all of six distribution channels. The

first four are aimed at consumers & the last two at industrial customers.

Channel 1 involves a direct sale to the consumer. Channel 2 includes a

retailer. Channel 3 also includes one wholesaler, while Channel 4 includes

an agent or broker before the wholesaler. Distribution strategies include

intensive, exclusive, & selective distribution.

Wholesalers act as distribution intermediaries, extending credit &

storing, repackaging, & delivering the product to other members of the

distribution channel. Full-service, & limited-service, merchant wholesalers

differ in the number of distribution functions they offer. Agents & brokers

never take legal possession of the product.

Retailing involves direct interaction with the final consumer. The

major types of retail stores are department, specialty, bargain,

convenience, supermarkets, & hypermarkets. (Like in Moscow.) They differ in

terms of size, services, & product type they offer, & product pricing. Some

retailing also takes place without stores, through the use of catalogs,

vending machines, & video marketing. According to the wheel of retailing,

conventional retailers are periodically Displaced by low-priced innovative

retailers, who then become more conventional & subject to displacement.

Distribution ultimately depends on physically getting the product to

the buyer. Physical distribution includes customer-service operations such

as order processing. It also includes warehousing & transportation of

products. Warehouses may be public or private & may be used for long-term

storage or serve as distribution centers. Costs of warehousing include

inventory control & materials handling.

Truck, plane, railroad, water, & pipeline transportation differ in

cost, availability, reliability of delivery, & speed. Air is the fastest

but most expensive. Water carriers are the slowest, but least expensive.

Most products are moved by truck at some point. Transportation in any form

may be supplied by common carriers, freight forwarders, contract carriers,

or private carriers.

Developing & Pricing Products

Products are a firms reason for being, their features offer benefits

to buyers, whose purchases are the source of business profits. In

developing products, marketers must take into account whether their market

is individual consumers or other firms. Marketers must also recognize that

buyers will pay less for & worry less about the exact nature of convenience

goods than about shopping & specialty goods. In industrial markets,

expensive items are generally less expensive & more rapidly consumed than

are capital items.

The seven stages of product development are development the ideas,

screening, concept testing, business analysis, prototype development, test

marketing, & commercialization. Very few ideas for new products survive to

the commercialization stage.

When new products are launched, they have a life cycle that begins

with their introduction & progresses through stages of growth, maturity, &

decline Revenues rise through the early growth period; sales rise through

the late maturity period. In terms of the growth -share matrix, this

progression appears as a product moves from questions mark to star to cash

cow to dog.

Each product is given a visible identity by its brand & the way it is

packaged & labeled. National, licensed & private brands are developed to

create brand loyalty. Packaging provides an attractive container &

advertises the product. The label informs the consumer of the package

contents. The pricing of the product will determine its business success,

depending on the business objectives that are being sought. Profit

maximization, market share, & other business objectives may be relevant to

the pricing decision. Economic theory, cost-oriented pricing, & break-even

analysis are tan used as tools in determine prices.

Pricing also involves choices of a basic pricing strategy can be used

for new products. Existing products may be priced at, above, or below

prevailing prices for similar products, depending on the other elements in

the marketing mix. Within a firms pricing strategies, managers set prices

using tactics such as price lining, psychological pricing, & discounting.


1. Promotional Objectives, Strategies, & Tools

. Promotional Objectives

. Promotional Strategies

. Picking the Right Tools for the Promotional Mix

5. Advertising Promotions

. Advertising Strategies

. Advertising Media

. Types Advertising

. Advertising to Specific Markets

. Regulation of Advertising

11. Personal Selling Promotions

. Types of Personal Selling Situations

. Personal Selling Tasks

. The Personal Selling Process

15. Sales Promotions

. Types of Sales Promotions

17. Publicity & Public Relations Promotions

. Small-Business Advertising

. Small-Business Personal Selling

. Small-Business Sales Promotions

. Small-Business Publicity

22. Distributing Goods & Services

23. Developing & Pricing Products


(Promoting Goods & Services)

To Dr. Zavadovskiy

by Goubanova Galina




Principles of Marketing Philip Kotler

Gary Armstrong

2.The practice of Marketing Kenneth E. Runyon

Business Ricky W. Griffin

Marketing Patrick E. Murphy

Ben M. Enis

Marketing Management ( A Strategic Approach)

Harper W. Boyd, Jr

Orville C. Walker,Jr

© 2007